It has sometimes been erroneously compared to the fief of medieval Europe. The iqṭāʿ system was established in the 9th century ad to relieve the state treasury. The iqtadari was a unique type of land distribution and administrative system evolved during the Sultanate per~od. Under the system, the whole. Meaning of the Iqta system: ‘Iqta’ is an Arabic word denoting a sort of administrative regional unit. It is usually considered equivalent to a province. Initially the.

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The crucial element in this mechanism was the iqta that combined the two functions of collection and distribution without immediately endangering the unity of the political structure. The choice of the sultan depended largely on the decisions of nobles. Also, Iqtas were not hereditary by law and had to be confirmed by a higher authority like the sultan or the king.

Sytem the reign of Ala-ud-din Khalji, three types of provinces existed. They united the Amirs of Persia and reorganized their land into Iqtas, whose borders remained largely similar to the predecessor states.

Habibullah iqtta that this official managed foreign affairs, and received and sent envoys. It was seen to it that transfers were also made more frequently.

Administration of India under the Delhi Sultanate

The Sultans of Delhi qita not follow any law of succession. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. The assignees of bigger iqtas-known as muqti or lOali-had dual obligation, tax collection and administration.

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However, during Firuz Shah Tughlaq’s reign, it became hereditary. The muqti was thus a tax collector and army paymaster rolled into one. These officials included nazir and lOakuf.

Iqta System

He was in charge of revenue and finance, and controlled the other departments. Though not an investment in a particular holding of land, the iqta—as a fiscal device—gave soldiers a vested interest iqqta the regime.

When the revenue has been realized from them, those subjects should remain secure from any demands of the muqtis in respect of their persons, wealth, families, lands and goods.

In return, when the central government called them for service or inspection, they had to be present with horses and arms.

Further, the Sultan had complete control over the size and tenure with the right to revoke it at will. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

It means that the grant of iqta did not imply a right to the land. The muqtis can’t hold any further claims on them. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. Discover some of the most interesting and trending topics of The muqti was thus a tax collector and army paymaster rolled into one.

Administration of India under the Delhi Sultanate

A small part of the money was to be given to the Sultan, but the percentage was usually insignificant compared to the other expenses. A slave was considered by law as property,….

Unlike European systems, the Muqtis sysem no right to interfere with the personal life of a paying person if the person stayed on the Muqti’s land.


The Iqtadar on the other hand, was reduced to being a mere revenue collector, though in no way was the subordinate to the Amir.

The cultivators were left at the mercy of military overlords in possession of the soil. Taxation and distribution of revenue resources Iraqi history In Iraq: The chaudhari was the head of a pargana.

The grants later became nuclei out of which petty principalities grew with the decline of the central power. The principle of heredity was not that popular nor that irrelevant in allocation of certain major iqtas in the 13 th c. Khat, muqaddam and patwari were the main village functionaries. During the time of Iltutmish, the Sultan paid soldiers of the central army with Iqtas wajh and from here onwards, we hear of the transferring of Muqtis. The functioning and administration remained basically the same as it had existed during the pre-Turkish phase.

Iqta System – General Knowledge Today

Help us improve this article! Each province was under a mukti or lOali. It is thus clear that the muqtis only hold the land under the king, the land in truth belongs to the Sultan. The Sultan was an autocrat and his will was eystem, though he considered himself the deputy of the Khalifa.