Teorija CPP: cestnoprometni predpisi: C, E, D – kat.: (za interno uporabo). Front Cover. Bojan Krajnc. B. Krajnc, – 89 pages. Index of /~slmurko/Teorija in vaje/ROM/Interaktivni raèunalniški teèaji/computing/ cpp. [ICO], Name · Last modified · Size · Description. [DIR], Parent Directory, -. Parent Directory, -. [TXT], BARCHART.C, Feb , K. [TXT], , Feb , K. [ ], , Feb , K.

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However, this implies more overhead and does not prevent you from knowing what you are doing. Roughly speaking, each object implements its own module allowing for example many lists to coexist. Singly linked lists just provides access methods to append a new element to their end and to delete the element at the front.

2 A Survey of Programming Techniques

We will now present an example which we use to present some design concepts. This chapter is organized as follows. Note the difference to the previous version where you just hide functions or procedures, respectively. The compiler should be able to check for type consistency.

The append procedure needs a more detailed discussion. Typically, this requires reorija write two files: Then you use the procedures of the module to modify each of your handles. Your interface definition file of your new list module looks like this:. Our interface definition might then look similar to that below:. For example, if the same statement sequence is needed at different locations within the program, the sequence must be copied.


In contrast to the other techniques, we now have a web of interacting objectseach house-keeping its own state Fig.


Even worse, sometimes traversing strategies depend on the particular context in which a data structure is used. The main program directly operates on global data. The main program coordinates calls to procedures in separate modules and hands over appropriate data as parameters.

Now you might say, that you can create list objects. A possible solution is to additionally add information about the type to each list element. What we would like to have is a mechanism which allows us to specify on which data type the list should be defined.

This implies a traversing strategy which defines the order in which the elements of the data structure are to be visited. Teprija hide information of the actual implementation information hiding.

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If you want to use a list within a procedure, say, foo you use the following code frame:. Consequently, in cases of errors you can narrow your search to those places which are not proven to be correct. With procedural programming you are able to combine returning sequences of statements into one single place. With introducing parameters as well as procedures of procedures subprocedures programs can now be written more structured and error free. Decoupling of data and operations leads usually to a structure based on the operations rather than the data: We can illustrate this as shown in Fig.


The corresponding list routines should then automatically return the correct data types. Consider the multiple lists example again. The resulting module structure is therefore oriented on the operations rather than the actual data.

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All procedures now operate on this handle rather than a module global list. You then use these operations by providing explicitly the data to them on which they should operate. Instead of calling a procedure which we must provide with the correct list handle, we would directly send a message to the list object in question.

In object-orientation, structure is organized by the data. This chapter is a short survey of programming techniques.

In contrast to that, in object-oriented programming we would have as many list objects as needed. The following two procedures implement the mentioned access methods append and delete.

This is a fundamental principle in software engineering, so let’s repeat it: Now a program can be viewed as a sequence of procedure calls. But what, if you need more than one list in one of your programs?