British anti-Lewisite (BAL; dimercaprol; 2,3-dimercaptopropanol) has been in use in the medical community for over 60 years. It is most commonly used as a. Dimercaprol is the drug of choice for treatment of acute arsenic, inorganic or elemental mercury, gold, and inorganic lead (in combination with EDTA) poisoning. The development of BAL must first start with its nemesis: Lewisite. Lewisite is a combination of acetylene and arsenic trichloride (figure 1) and has also been.

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British anti-Lewisite (dimercaprol): an amazing history.

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Dimercaprol is more effective if its use is begun within two hours after ingestion of the toxic metal.

It was believed to have much greater toxicity than mustard gas, with some animal data suggesting that as little as one-third teaspoon on the skin would result in oewisite death Vilensky Lorincz of the University of Michigan has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

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On first arrival in the United States ina series of studies was initiated to determine BAL s biochemistry, pharmacology, experimental therapeutics, and clinical applications Waters and Stock The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.

The effects were definitive and dramatic; the patients exhibited great improvement in accordance with marked increases in urinary copper excretion Cummings ; Denny-Brown and Porter Originally released November 30, ; last updated April 23, ; expires April 23, If you are britisg former subscriber or have registered before, please log in first and ajti click select a Service Plan or contact Subscriber Services.


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Archived PDF from the original on 13 December International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol Archived lwisite the original on 21 December If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login.

Retrieved 22 April British anti-Lewisite is occasionally used for both acute heavy metal intoxication and Wilson disease.

Thank You for Your Contribution! Nonetheless, because it can have serious adverse effectsresearchers have also pursued brtish of less toxic analogues. If you are a subscriber, please log in. BAL is not lewisjte recommended for use today because more efficient and safer chelators for oral or parenteral administration have been developed Andersen ; Blanusa et al ; Archer Parenteral British anti-Lewisite can be successfully used in lead poisoning if oral therapy fails.

British anti-Lewisite (dimercaprol): an amazing history.

Common side effects include high blood pressurepain at the site of the injection, vomiting, and fever. It has been postulated that, because BAL is nonpolar, it may accelerate the removal of copper from within the brain compared to more modern agents Scheimberg and Sternlieb ; Walshe British anti-Lewisite is used in arsenic, gold, and mercury soluble inorganic compounds poisoning.

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By the end of World War IIdimercaprol had also been found useful as an antidote against poisoning by several metals and semimetals—including arsenicgoldleadand mercury—that act by combining with cellular sulfhydryl groups. Dimercaprol is itself toxic, with a narrow therapeutic range and a tendency to concentrate arsenic in some organs.

Skeletal formula and ball and stick model of dimercaprol. There was a problem with your submission.

Eagle and Magnuson found that 48 patients with severe or mild symptoms of arsenical encephalopathy were effectively treated with BAL Eagle and Magnuson Its original name reflects its origins as a compound secretly developed by British biochemists at Oxford University during World War II [13] [14] as an antidote for lewisitea now-obsolete arsenic -based chemical warfare agent.

You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Improvements in synthesis resulted in the development of effective therapeutic ointments and solutions.

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At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Dimercaprol has been used as an adjunct in the treatment of the acute encephalopathy of lead toxicity. During and after the war, nonmilitary uses for the heavy metal chelating action of BAL became apparent.

Chronicle of a Twentieth Century Medical Triumph.

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